The study represents results of the investigation of IL-1β, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines content in the blood serum of children of different gender with community-acquired uncomplicated pneumonia (CAUP) in the dynamics of treatment as compared to healthy boys and girls. The established gender specifications of cytokine response on inflammatory process: boys have an increased level of IL-1в not only prior but also after the treatment in distinction from the dynamics of the present rate in girls, which fact proves the more intensive involvement of IL-1β in the immune response on inflammatory process. Girls with community-acquired uncomplicated pneumonia have an increased level of IL-4 not only prior but also after the treatment, which fact proves the more intensive involvement of opposite IL-4 in regulation of inflammatory process in lungs of girls as compared to boys. The increase of TNF-α occurs in all children with CAUP regardless of their gender during the acuity of the disease. The established changes of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the blood serum of children with CAUP prove the necessity of taking into account the gender specifications during the assessment of these indications and the ability to use them for prediction of disease course.