The literature review presented a critical analysis of clinical studies devoted to herpesvirus influence on the neural system lesions development focusing on the pathophysiological mechanisms of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system pathology. There are 8 types of the herpes virus but only 6 described herein can cause neural system damage. The ways of the virus penetration inside the body and their possible dissemination are specified. The exact specific herpesvirus-induced neurological symptoms are given. Pathophysiological mechanisms of herpesvirus induced neural system lesions were established by authors. The authors conclude that pain is one of the major clinical symptoms of herpes infection that induces aseptic inflammation in the organism followed by the formation of pathological dysintegration of neural and immune systems.