Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1) is a master regulator of cellular and systemic homeostatic response to hypoxia by activating transcription of many genes, including those involved in energy metabolism, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and other genes whose protein products increase oxygen delivery or facilitate metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1 plays an essential role in embryonic vascularization, tumor angiogenesis and pathophysiology of ischemic disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the gene expression of HIF1A in childbirth, suffering from dysfunction of the placenta in the background of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy.
The research was conducted at the maternity hospital N 2 (Odessa); during 2012–2013 were examined 100 women in labor, from samples of which were obtained placenta. There were the following clinical groups: I group — the placenta of women with physiological pregnancy and childbirth (n=20); the second group — the placenta of pregnant women with a history of anemia (n=40); the third group — the placenta of women with placental dysfunction and a history of anemia (n=40).
Patients were selected based on performance cardiotocography, Doppler uteroplacental blood flow. Exclusion criteria were: multiple pregnancy, preeclampsia, severe extragenital pathology (diabetes mellitus, systemic diseases of the cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive systems), congenital and hereditary disease of the fetus.
RNA analysis was conducted at the Clinic of Reproductive Medicine “Nadia” from biopsy samples of placentas to investigate the gene expression of HIF1A (OMIM 603348). There were consistently carried out the following procedures: sampling and biopsy of the placenta, the selection of RNA carrying out reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
There was demonstrated that women with a history of iron deficiency anemia gene HIF1A expression significantly increased (OR=10.2; 95 % CI 8.1–12.4) compared with the control, and the presence of placental dysfunction against a background of growth of iron deficiency anemia gene expression HIF1A is less pronounced (OR=4.1; DI 95 % 2.9–5.3). It was discussed the feasibility of association studies of eNOS, VEGFA and PIGF gene expression changes in placental dysfunction at the background of iron deficiency anemia.